Digitization and networked communications are increasingly touching all aspects of modern life. Among them is employment, which has served as a key organizing principle for society since the industrial revolution. Employment has long anchored labor contracts and the division of labor within organizations, large and small. It has also shaped individual careers, orienting investments in basic education and job training. In many countries, traditional employment is at the center of social protection programs, from health care to pension systems. Employment also affects individual’s sense of belonging to a social group with shared career expectations and norms. Promoting equal employment opportunities is often at the center of economic and social inclusion programs for women, racial minorities and the youth. As a result, ongoing changes in digital communications and computing that significantly affect the nature of work are poised to have long-lasting impacts on development outcomes.